4-CMC also known as 4-chloromethcathinone or Clephedrone is a psychostimulant drug. It is available online as a designer drug. It has been regarded as a controlled substance and is available only for scientific purposes or other public interest only. 4-CMC is marketed as a replacement to mephedrone after it was banned.
Cathinone is an endogenous monoamine alkaloid which has been found in plant of Catha edulis (khat) that is most common among the African and Arabian Peninsula, where it has been used as a mild stimulant along with cathine. Generally as 4-CMC is a cathinone, it acts on a central nervous system as a mild stimulant, and is structurally related to amphetamines.
4-CMC chemically belongs to substituted cathinone class, where cathinones are the sub-category of amphetamines. 4-chloromethcathinone is analogue of methcathinone. It possesses the same core amphetamine structure whereas it undergoes chlorine group substitution at R4 position of the phenyl ring and a methyl group substituted at RN. The 4-CMC is speculated for being a potent neurotoxin, because all chlorine substituted cathinones (or amphetamines) have been known to be strongly neurotoxic. But the actual toxicity data is not present as no scientific studies on this compound are conducted for evaluation.
The physiological and toxicological activities of this substance are not currently known, as little data is available on human use. It has a serotonergic effect. It is known to have a stimulant / psychoactive effect, which means they act to excite the nervous system and increase physiological function.
The substituted cathinone classes of enactogenic and stimulant drugs generally are known to exert their activity by acting as a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor. So, 4-CMC can be regarded as norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor and possibly as a promoter. The agonistic effect exerted on this receptor set has been known for increased rate of firing of post synaptic neurons. This results in triggering both the cognitive and physical stimulation within the user.
As it’s a stimulant, increased awakening, alertness and euphoria is the most significant physical effect that can be observed. It is a habit forming drug, which is quite similar to amphetamines. There are some reports that indicate the potential neurotoxic effect of this research chemical.
The effects and side effects listed below are all subjective and derived from data of personal experiences, so it may differ from one person to another. It decreases the need for sleep, increased sociability, promotes mood lift, increased concentration and performance, increased sexuality i.e. aphrodiasic, excessive talking, increase empathy, appetite suppression, weight loss, sweating, disturbed sleep patterns, bruxism (excessive teeth grinding), mood changes, aggression, itching and visual and auditory hallucinations may likely to occur. It may cause dehydration, increase in blood pressure, suppression of bodily functions, craving; which may lead to compulsive redosing, nausea, paranoid state, pupil dilation, headache, and confusion.
The minimum dose or threshold dose from oral route is from 20 – 30 mg, and light dose potency ranges from 30 – 50 mg. The common dose is 50 – 100 mg while the strong dose effects are expected to occur above 100 mg. The effect is seen within 45 – 90 minutes, while the main effect occurs at 3 – 5 hours and after affects remains from 2 – 12 hours.
The nasal/ sublingual effects starts from 10 – 30 mg, and slight effects can be seen with 20 – 50 mg dose. The normal dose is considered to be between 40 – 70 mg, while in order to obtain strong effect, the dose ranges from 60 – 100 mg or above it. The onset of action is seen within 10 – 30 minutes, peak effect at 2- 4 hours, and after affects form 2 – 12 hours.
Through intravenous/inhaled/rectal route, first effect can be seen at dose of 5 – 20 mg, and light effects from 15 – 30 mg. The normal dose is 30 – 60mg, and strong effects are observed at 50 – 80 mg or above it. The onset of action is within 5 – 10 minutes, with peak effect showing at 1 – 4 hours and after affects that remains from 2 – 12 hours.
4-chloromethcathinone, designer drug, clephedrone, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone, Khat.
|Formal Name||1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone, monohydrochloride|
|Molecular Formula||C10H12ClNO • HCl|